Intel will continue to keep pace with Moore's Law for now, but as chips continue to shrink, maintaining the pace of progress is growing more difficult, says Intel's William Holt. Intel has used Moore's Law as a baseline for decades to increase transistors and make chips smaller and more cost-effective, resulting in faster and more efficient computers. "Are we closer to an end than we were five years ago? Of course," Holt says. "But are we to the point where we can realistically predict that end, we don't think so." He notes that manufacturing is more complicated with smaller chips, which are subject to a wider class of defects as sensitivities and minor variations increase, requiring extreme attention to detail. "As we make things smaller, the effort that it takes to make them actually work is increasingly difficult," Holt says. However, he says Intel has discovered new tools and innovations to make new generations of chips possible. Meanwhile, other companies, such as IBM, are researching ways of extending Moore's Law, and the U.S. National Science Foundation is funding a research effort called Science and Engineering Beyond Moore's Law, which focuses on manufacturing, nanotechnology, multicore chips, and emerging technologies.